Speakers: Parts is Parts - Styles and Dome Tweeter Variations.

March 25 2020, 07:10
Speakers: Parts is Parts - Styles and Dome Tweeter Variations.
Speakers: Parts is Parts - Styles and Dome Tweeter Variations.
Styles, Dome Tweeter Variations and a Balanced Drive Tweeter.

In this article series about speaker parts we now explore the tweeter, a class of transducers designed to reproduce the upper range of audio frequencies. In the previous article we covered a bit of tweeter history, discussed the cone tweeter, and introduced the common dome tweeter. In this article, we will explore dome tweeter variations and introduce the balanced drive tweeter.

Dome Tweeter Dispersion
Dome tweeters generally have better dispersion than cone tweeters, but many factors come into play. Even dome tweeters have many variations including: soft and hard domes, back chambers, phase plugs, voice coil attachment (at the peripheral or modally driven), and magnetic structure topology.

First, let’s explore the speaker diaphragms' “effective radiating area” and how this consideration impacts the dispersion of tweeter cones and domes.

Simply measuring the tweeter diaphragm’s diameter often does not directly correlate to the transducer’s dispersion. When a tweeter’s diaphragm works as a perfectly rigid piston, the theoretical would more closely track the reality. But, this is not always the case.

The designer can intentionally try to stiffen the diaphragm assembly to increase its piston characteristics or intentionally design for the decoupling and flexing of the diaphragm. Soft dome tweeters are designed to blow with the breeze, while metal dome tweeters stand tall and stiff in the storm. In the case of hard domes, there are many ways to stiffen the diaphragm.

The diameter can be reduced, but this complicates many other design aspects. In general, smaller dome tweeters provide wider sound dispersion at the highest frequencies. However, smaller dome tweeters have less radiating area, which limits their output at the lower end of their range.
Figure 1: The topology of the voice coil-to-dome attach can be changed, depending on whether it is a standard dome (a) or an inverted dome (b).

They also have smaller voice coils, which limit their overall power output. Another way to increase stiffness is to have the diaphragm with a deeper contour (e.g., a deeper dome or cone). As with anything else, too much will get you into trouble. A higher Young’s modulus (stiffness) of diaphragm material can be selected. It is possible to switch from a polyester like Mylar (a molten polyethylene terephthalate or PET) to a higher stiffness polyester like Teonex (a polyethylene naphthenate or PEN). In the case of hard domes, you can switch from aluminum to titanium.

The topology of the voice coil-to-dome attachment can also be changed (e.g., a modally driven voice coil). Many inverted dome tweeters have used modal drive, which is where the voice coil is attached at the diaphragm’s half diameter. By driving the dome where its first break-up mode is physically located (halfway up the diaphragm), you can shift the break-up frequency up an octave. This is especially practical for inverted dome tweeters (see Figure 1).
Photo 1: Winslow Burhoe invented the inverted dome tweeter.

Inverted Dome Tweeters
Winslow Burhoe invented the inverted dome tweeter (see Photo 1). In this design, the dome is suspended at its edge but driven by a smaller diameter voice coil (see Photo 2). Regular dome tweeters are suspended at the edge and have the voice coil attached at the edge. Burhoe introduced the inverted dome tweeter when he launched Epicure (also known as EPI) in 1970. Epicure designed and sold many successful designs. In the 1990s it became one of the Harman brands. 

I had the privilege of meeting and talking with Burhoe, an industry icon, at an informal Association of Loudspeaker Manufacturing and Acoustics (ALMA) meeting in the Boston, MA, area last summer. He is still designing and building audiophile speakers under the Direct Acoustics brand name. In addition to Epicure, other brands have used inverted domes with modal drives, including Genesis Physics in the 1980s and later Focal’s famous beryllium inverted dome tweeters that are still highly regarded today. 
Photo 2: The EPI tweeter is suspended at its edge but driven by a smaller-diameter voice coil.

Jacques Mahul, founder of JMLab and Focal, made the following points during an interview with Jonathan Scull, in the April 1998 issue of Stereophile: "With an inverted dome, you have the coil in the middle of the dome diameter. The mechanical coupling is better. Consider that the coil of a [positive] dome tweeter is attached tangentially — it’s outside, on the circumference. As a result, you have no angle created between the coil and the “base” of the hemisphere — they lie in the same plane. In this way, you actually lose a significant amount of energy."

With the inverted dome (i.e., the coil in the center) there is an angle created between the dome and the coil. The voice coil is fixed at mid-height on the dome and uniformly moves the cone’s entire surface. The energy transfer is more efficient, so you lose only perhaps 45% or 50% of the energy between the coil and the dome. This is important, as it helps bring out all the micro-information and inner detail contained in the musical source. Sometimes the tweeter’s size does not reflect the dispersion.

Curlinear Decoupling
One particularly well-engineered approach is to have a larger diaphragm with a small, effective radiating area (e.g., the innovative Allison tweeter, which is shown in Photo 3). 
Photo 3: The Allison tweeter has a larger diaphragm with a small effective radiating area.
In an interview with Steven Mowry (“Voice Coil Chats with Mr. Roy F. Allison,” December 2010), Roy Allison said, “The midrange and tweeter units are not really domes in the usual sense. They are convex radiators, but each is driven by a voice coil at approximately half the distance from the center to the suspension edge. Neither has a spider. The tweeter’s cone part, although convex overall, is curved inward and the outer edge is clamped through a thin ring of latex foam to the mounting plate. Thus, the cone’s radius of curvature changes as the voice coil moves, simulating a pulsating hemisphere that puts large amounts of high-frequency energy into the reverberant field all the way up to 20 kHz. 

"The midrange unit has a straight-sided cone with a flexible polyethylene edge suspension. It has extremely wide and uniform dispersion over its operating range, as does the tweeter. Neither is proprietary inasmuch as they’re not protected by patents, but they are difficult and time-consuming to make properly, and they do project relatively far out from the front cabinet panel, which complicates the grille design. They have not been imitated, probably for those reasons.”

The idea is the flexing (squeezing) of the outer part of the diaphragm provides the decoupling reducing the effective radiating area, which provides improved power response in the driver’s upper range.
Photo 4: Hard-dome tweeters often contain a phase plug.

Phase Plug
The phase plug is a small orifice suspended over the tweeter dome often found in hard-dome tweeters (see Photo 4). The wavelengths of the last octave or so of the top-end response are smaller than the diaphragm (if you optimistically assume piston motion). So, the phase plug’s purpose is to equalize the path length to the sound energy’s listener from the diaphragm’s center and sides. For example, in compression drivers, the phase plug optimizes phase coherence and extends (peaks) the frequency response at the treble’s very top end.

Back chambers
Except for dipole tweeters (e.g., some ribbons and electrostatics) most tweeters have a rear chamber (i.e., captive air volume behind the diaphragm). Typically, it consists of the volume behind the dome and the magnetic structure’s inner cavities. Sometimes felt or other acoustically absorbent material is placed behind the dome to absorb reflections from the magnetic structure bouncing back through the dome (see Photo 5).
Photo 5: A tweeter’s back chamber typically consists of the volume behind the dome (a) and the magnetic structure’s inner cavities (b).
In tweeter designs that target a lower resonance frequency, the pole piece may be vented through to a cup attached to the rear of the magnetic structure. These loosely coupled chambers will lower the resonance frequency, hopefully maintain smooth phase response a bit lower into the midrange frequencies, and enable the tweeter to have a lower crossover point. Yet, back chambers also tend to impact the rest of the tweeter’s response so the designer’s skill and experience will come into play when the prototype is first tested.

Balanced Drive
Balanced drive is essentially derived from a combination of the common microspeaker, the cone tweeter, and the headphone driver, which is sometimes described as the donut with a dome. Basically, the diaphragm has a center dome with the voice coil directly behind it and a cone shape that joins the diaphragm to the frame. Usually, the cone acts as part of the radiator and part of the suspension. Early versions tended to have a separate dust cap and some of them had spiders.
Photo 6: Balanced drive tweeters are popular in autosound coaxial speakers, like these from Clarion.
Most current designs have polyester film diaphragms without spiders, often using ferrofluid in the gap for centering the coil. The diaphragm size (typically 1") and small voice coil diameter (often 12-mm diameter or approximately 0.5") result in high output, good efficiency, and low cost.

Audax (France) and Foster (Japan) were early evangelists of this design, followed by many Taiwanese and, later, Chinese vendors. Balanced drive tweeters are also popular in autosound coaxial speakers as the design is robust and can be easily paired with small woofers (see Photo 6). aX

This article was originally published in audioXpress, February 2013.
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